December 3, 2021

ACN News

Area Control Network News | Breaking News

Good long term immunity

Duration of Antibody Responses after Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (2007)

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2851497/

n = 176

SARS-specific antibodies were maintained for an average of 2 years

Significant reduction of immunoglobulin G in the third year

Covid-19: Do many people have pre-existing immunity?

https://www.bmj.com/content/370/bmj.m3563

But T cell studies allow for a substantially different, more optimistic, interpretation.

SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell immunity in cases of COVID-19 and SARS, and uninfected controls (Nature, 2020)

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32668444/

n = 36

In all of these individuals, we found CD4 and CD8 T cells that recognized multiple regions of the N protein

Coronavirus nucleocapsid (N), structural protein that forms complexes with genomic RNA

Patients (n = 23) who recovered from SARS (SARS-CoV-1 infection)

Possess long-lasting memory T cells, reactive, 17 years after 2003

These T cells displayed robust cross-reactivity to the N protein of SARS-CoV-2

Epitope characterization of specific T cells showed the recognition of protein fragments that are conserved among animal betacoronaviruses

Persistent Cellular Immunity to SARS-CoV-2 Infection

https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.12.08.416636v1

Introduction

Cellular and humoral immune responses to infection

Antibody responses include most of the structural proteins expressed
by the virus

Neutralizing antibodies directed primarily to the receptor binding domain of the
spike

Lymphopenia is a prominent feature of severe infection

During acute infection, T cells displayed a highly activated cytotoxic phenotype

Convalescent patients harbored polyfunctional SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells,

that display a stem like memory phenotype

Cross-reactivity with seasonal/common cold coronaviruses

May be associated with a milder clinical course

Coronaviruses, levels of persistent Immunity

Four seasonal coronaviruses, immunity 6 to 12 months

Immune response in recovered individuals, measured T cell responses

Paired samples, average of 1.3 months and 6.1 months after infection

N = 41 individuals

63.4% male and 36.6% female

24-73 years old

Various disease severity, skewed to mild

Recovered individuals show persistent polyfunctional SARS-CoV-2 antigen specific memory

Could contribute to rapid recall responses

Recovered individuals

Enduring immune alterations and numbers

CD4+ T cells (helpers)

CD8+ T cells (cytotoxic)

Summary

Broadly reactive and highly functional memory T cell responses

Persist 6 months after infection

Enduring immune alterations in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells compartments.

Specific circulating T cell numbers goes down over 6 months

SARS-CoV-2 infection induces long-lived bone marrow plasma cells in humans

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-021-03647-4

Long lived bone marrow plasma memory cells

Convalescent individuals have a significantly lower risk of reinfection

Patients who experienced mild infections (n=77)

Spike (S) antibodies decline rapidly in the first 4 months after infection

Then more gradually over the following 7 months

Remaining detectable at least 11 months after infection

Bone marrow aspirates, S-specific BMPCs

18 SARS-CoV-2 convalescent patients 7 to 8 months after infection

7 to 8 months after infection

5 patients 11 months after infection

7 to 8 months no S-specific plasma blasts

11 healthy subjects with no history of SARS-CoV-2 infection

We demonstrate that S-binding BMPCs are quiescent, indicating that they are part of a long-lived compartment.

Overall, we show that SARS-CoV-2 infection induces a robust antigen-specific, long-lived humoral immune response in humans.

Immunity may persist

Scott Hensley, immunologist, University of Pennsylvania

The papers are consistent with the growing body of literature that suggests that immunity elicited by infection and vaccination for SARS-CoV-2 appears to be long-lived

The reason we get infected with common coronaviruses repetitively throughout life might have much more to do with variation of these viruses rather than immunity

Michel Nussenzweig, immunologist, Rockefeller University, New York

People who were infected and get vaccinated really have a terrific response, a terrific set of antibodies, because they continue to evolve their antibodies

I expect that they will last for a long time

Boosters doses?

Probably for those only vaccinated

That’s the kind of thing that we will know very, very soon

Source: Dr. John Campbell

World News

The Military News

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DTCppdqnuKA NORFOLK, Va. (Dec. 1, 2021) The aircraft carrier USS Harry S. Truman (CVN 75) departs Naval Station Norfolk Dec. 1, as part of Harry...

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LQIXnRBL_PE This Is Why the Zumwalt DDG-1000 Stealth Destroyer is not called a Battleship Zumwalt is a heavy hitter whose reach is woefully short. Over...

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rg0vZqxTta8 Coming Soon New F-22 Raptor After Upgrade The Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor is an advanced stealth tactical fighter jet, exclusively used by the US...

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h7nQfa0En9E ANNAPOLIS, Md.-- Navy Athletics and Under Armour unveiled a special, naval-aviation themed uniform today that the Navy football team will wear for the Dec....

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MGTYbv1OTQI These 5 Weapons Would Spearhead a Marine Invasion of North Korea U.S. Marines would be the first to enter the fight on the ground....

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DGPj5iAYsUQ Video shows an explosion caused by an EOD bomb disposal burying the camera placed to film the event. WarLeaks - Military Blog covers events,...

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qH3ov8eZF3Q U.S. Army Sgt. Nate Staskiewicz won the Tactical Optics Champion title at the recent Vortex Shootout 3 Gun! Just take a look at one...

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SpvV5kAqm58 This is Military Dogs that Are Specially Trained for Combat Dogs trained for military use as attack dogs, most often called patrol dogs, can...

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DoTLgRxlIRg A 2017 Pentagon report to Congress detailing production retail costs for Lockheed Martin’s F-22 Raptor show that reviving the powerful stealth air superiority fighter...

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=39fYUXX11Tc SAN DIEGO (Nov. 8, 2021) A Mercy Exercise (MERCEX) 22-1 conclusion video featuring Sailors embarked with the Medical Treatment Facility (MTF) aboard Military Sealift...

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4NcenKQik8o War has a long history that dates back to the dawn of civilization, but armies have come a long way since the spear, or...

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=63_Y-PJtmpc NATO Allies face many challenges as they patrol and defend their maritime areas, including the detection and clearing of mines, the monitoring and protection...